Anabolic steroids

Anabolic steroids, also known as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, the primary male hormone. They have both anabolic (muscle building) and androgenic (masculinizing) effects. These substances are used by bodybuilders, athletes, and individuals looking to enhance their physical appearance and performance. However, their non-medical use is controversial and associated with a range of health risks and side effects.

History and Development

Anabolic steroids were first synthesized in the 1930s and have since been used for a variety of medical purposes, including the treatment of hypogonadism, delayed puberty, certain types of impotence, and wasting conditions like HIV/AIDS. Their performance-enhancing effects were quickly recognized, leading to their popularity among athletes and bodybuilders.

Mechanism of Action

Anabolic steroids promote anabolic effects by enhancing protein synthesis, which in turn increases muscle mass and strength. They also have androgenic effects, which develop male sexual characteristics. When administered, these substances increase the levels of testosterone in the body, which activates specific nuclear receptors and leads to altered gene expression in target tissues. This results in increased muscle mass, strength, and recovery rate.

Medical Uses

Medically, anabolic steroids are prescribed for conditions such as delayed puberty, diseases that result in muscle loss like cancer or AIDS, and certain kinds of anemia. They are considered effective in these contexts but must be used under a physician’s supervision to minimize potential side effects and complications.

Performance Enhancement and Abuse

In the context of sports and bodybuilding, anabolic steroids are used to increase strength, endurance, muscle size, and recovery rates. However, their non-medical use is generally illegal and banned by most major sports organizations due to their potential to provide an unfair advantage, as well as the health risks they pose.

Health Risks and Side Effects

The non-medical use of anabolic steroids can lead to serious health issues, especially when used in high doses or over long periods. Potential side effects include liver damage, heart disease, altered cholesterol levels, hypertension, gynecomastia, acne, hair loss, mood swings, and aggressive behavior.

In men, it can lead to testicular atrophy and infertility, while women might experience virilization effects such as deepening of the voice and increased body hair.

Legal Status

In many countries, anabolic steroids are controlled substances, and their non-prescription use, possession, or distribution can lead to significant legal consequences. This legal framework aims to prevent abuse and the associated health risks.


While anabolic steroids have legitimate medical uses and can provide significant benefits in those contexts, their non-medical use is fraught with risks. The potential for serious health issues, combined with the legal implications and the ethical considerations related to fair competition in sports, suggests that their use should be carefully considered and, outside of medical contexts, generally avoided. Individuals considering their use should consult healthcare professionals and consider the long-term implications of their choices.