Vasectomy Reversal

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Vasectomy reversal, also known as vasovasostomy, is a surgical procedure performed to restore fertility in men who have previously undergone a vasectomy. During a vasectomy, the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra, are cut and sealed to prevent the release of sperm during ejaculation. Vasectomy reversal aims to reconnect these tubes, allowing sperm to once again travel into the semen.

Types of Vasectomy Reversals

There are two primary types of vasectomy reversal procedures:

  • Vasovasostomy: This is the most common type of vasectomy reversal. During a vasovasostomy, the surgeon reattaches the severed ends of the vas deferens, allowing sperm to flow freely from the testicles into the ejaculate.
  • Vasoepididymostomy: In cases where a vasovasostomy is not possible due to blockages or scarring in the vas deferens near the testicle, a vasoepididymostomy may be performed. This procedure involves connecting the vas deferens directly to the epididymis, a structure at the back of the testicle where sperm is stored.


Vasectomy reversal, also known as vasovasostomy or epididymovasostomy, is a surgical procedure performed to restore fertility in men who have previously undergone a vasectomy. While it can be successful in many cases, it also carries certain risks and potential complications. Here are some common risks associated with vasectomy reversal:

Surgical Complications

As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of surgical complications such as infection at the incision site, bleeding, or adverse reactions to anesthesia.

Failure of Reversal

Success rates for vasectomy reversal vary depending on various factors, including the surgeon’s skill, the length of time since the vasectomy, and the presence of anti-sperm antibodies. In some cases, the reversal may not be successful, and fertility may not be restored.

Sperm Quality and Count

Even if the reversal is successful, the quality and quantity of sperm in the ejaculate may not be sufficient for natural conception. It can take several months for sperm to reappear in the ejaculate, and in some cases, the sperm may not regain normal motility or morphology.

Epididymal Obstruction

In some cases, a blockage or obstruction in the epididymis (the part of the reproductive tract where sperm matures and is stored) may prevent sperm from reaching the vas deferens. This can necessitate a more complex procedure called epididymovasostomy.

Chronic Pain

Some men may experience chronic testicular or scrotal pain following vasectomy reversal. This condition, known as post-vasectomy pain syndrome (PVPS), can be long-lasting and may require further evaluation and treatment.

Inflammation and Swelling

Postoperative inflammation and swelling of the scrotum are common and usually resolve with time. However, in some cases, excessive swelling can occur and may require medical attention.


Vasectomy reversal is a surgical procedure aimed at restoring fertility in men who have previously undergone a vasectomy. The procedure typically involves the following steps:

  • Anesthesia: The patient is usually placed under general anesthesia to ensure comfort and pain control during the surgery.
    Access to the Vas Deferens: The surgeon makes a small incision in the upper part of the scrotum to access the vas deferens, the same tubes that were cut or blocked during the vasectomy.
  • Assessment: The surgeon examines the cut ends of the vas deferens to determine their condition and whether a vasovasostomy (reconnection) or epididymovasostomy (connection to the epididymis) is required.
  • Reconnection: In a vasovasostomy, the surgeon meticulously reconnects the cut ends of the vas deferens using microsurgical techniques and very fine sutures. If there is a blockage or damage to the epididymis, an epididymovasostomy may be performed instead.
  • Closure: Once the reconnection is complete, the incisions are closed with sutures, and the surgical site is dressed.
  • Recovery: After the procedure, patients are monitored for a short time to ensure there are no immediate complications. Postoperative care includes resting, applying ice packs to reduce swelling, and avoiding strenuous activities and sexual intercourse for several weeks.
  • Semen Analysis: To assess the success of the reversal, patients are advised to provide semen samples for analysis over a period of several months to confirm the presence of sperm in the ejaculate.

Vasectomy reversal is a specialized procedure performed by urologists trained in microsurgery. Success rates can vary, and it’s important for individuals considering this surgery to discuss their options, expectations, and potential outcomes with their healthcare provider.


Vasectomy reversal offers a chance for individuals who previously opted for sterilization to potentially regain their fertility. However, it’s crucial to understand that the success of vasectomy reversal can be influenced by several factors:

  • Reversal Success: The success rates for vasectomy reversal vary depending on several factors. One of the key factors is the length of time that has passed since the initial vasectomy. Generally, the sooner the reversal is performed after the vasectomy, the higher the chances of success. Reversals performed within a few years of the vasectomy often have better outcomes compared to those done after a longer interval.
  • Sperm Quality: The quality and quantity of sperm present in the epididymis and vas deferens also influence the success of reversal. In some cases, the sperm may have deteriorated over time, affecting fertility even if the reversal is successful. This is why a semen analysis is typically performed after the procedure to assess sperm quality.
  • Individual Variability: Each individual’s response to vasectomy reversal can vary. Some may achieve pregnancy relatively quickly after the procedure, while others may face more challenges or require additional fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
  • Post-Reversal Recovery: After vasectomy reversal, individuals may experience postoperative discomfort, swelling, and bruising. Recovery time varies but is generally shorter than the recovery period for vasectomy. Following the surgeon’s post-operative instructions is crucial for optimal recovery and to minimize complications. Patients should actively communicate with their healthcare provider during the recovery process, reporting any unusual symptoms or concerns promptly. A careful and attentive approach to postoperative recovery can contribute to the best possible outcome following a vasectomy reversal.

Overall, the success rates for vasectomy reversal are influenced by various factors. While vasectomy reversal offers a chance at restored fertility, it is not guaranteed, and couples should be prepared for potential challenges along the way. Consulting with a qualified reproductive specialist and having realistic expectations are crucial steps in making an informed decision about vasectomy reversal.


A vasectomy reversal is a procedure with the potential to restore fertility in men who’ve undergone a vasectomy. However, its success depends on several factors, including timing, sperm quality, and individual response. To make an informed decision, consult a healthcare professional who can assess your specific situation and guide you through the process. While vasectomy reversal offers hope, it’s important to be aware of its complexities and potential challenges, ensuring realistic expectations and personalized care on your journey toward restored fertility.

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