Conditions & Treatments

Urinary Tract Infections

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Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in the urinary system, often causing discomfort and frequent urination. UTIs involve the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and/or urethra. They most commonly affect the bladder and urethra, and, due to anatomical differences, are more common in women than men.

The University of Kansas Department of Urology is dedicated to providing high-quality urological care. Our proficient team tailors treatment strategies, employing advanced methods and diagnostics to address a range of urological conditions, including Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs). Our commitment is to your health, and we provide compassionate care to enhance your overall well-being and quality of life.

Types of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

  • Cystitis: This is the most common type of UTI and affects the bladder. It often causes symptoms such as frequent and urgent urination, a burning sensation during urination, cloudy or bloody urine, and lower abdominal discomfort.
  • Pyelonephritis: This is a more severe UTI that affects the kidneys. It can lead to symptoms like high fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and severe back pain. Pyelonephritis requires prompt medical attention as it can lead to serious complications.
  • Urethritis: Urethritis is an infection of the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. It can cause symptoms like burning or itching in the urethral area and discharge.



Symptoms of UTIs may vary depending on which part of the urinary tract is affected. Common symptoms include:

  • A strong, persistent urge to urinate
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
  • Cloudy, dark, bloody, or strong-smelling urine
  • Pain or pressure in the lower abdomen or back
  • Feeling tired or shaky
  • Fever or chills (sign that the infection may have reached the kidneys)


UTIs are primarily caused by the introduction of bacteria into the urinary tract. The most common culprit is the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), which is normally found in the digestive system. Common causes and risk factors include:

  • Bacterial Entry: Bacteria can enter the urinary tract through the urethra and travel upwards. This can happen due to poor hygiene, sexual activity, or the use of certain contraceptives.
  • Gender: Women are more prone to UTIs because their urethras are shorter in length, allowing bacteria easier access to the bladder.
  • Age: UTIs can occur at any age, but they are more common in older adults due to weakened immune systems or urinary tract abnormalities.
  • Obstruction: Any blockage or obstruction in the urinary tract, such as kidney stones or an enlarged prostate in men, can increase the risk of UTIs.
  • Catheter Use: Individuals with urinary catheters are at a higher risk of developing UTIs as the catheter can introduce bacteria into the urinary tract.
  • Weakened Immune System: Conditions like diabetes, HIV/AIDS, or any condition that weakens the immune system can make individuals more susceptible to UTIs.


  • Medical History and Physical Examination: A healthcare provider will typically begin by taking a detailed medical history and performing a physical examination to gather information about the patient’s symptoms and overall health.
  • Urinalysis: This is one of the most common diagnostic tests for UTIs. A urine sample is collected and analyzed for the presence of bacteria, blood cells, or other indicators of infection. The results can help confirm the diagnosis.
  • Urine Culture: In some cases, a urine culture may be performed to identify the specific type of bacteria causing the infection and determine which antibiotics will be most effective in treating it.
  • Imaging Studies: If there is suspicion of a more severe UTI or complications, imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI may be recommended to assess the condition of the kidneys or urinary tract.


  • Antibiotics: The primary treatment for UTIs involves antibiotics. The choice of antibiotics and the duration of treatment depend on factors like the type of bacteria causing the infection, its sensitivity to antibiotics, and the severity of the UTI. It’s crucial to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.
  • Pain Relief: Over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen may be recommended to alleviate discomfort, such as the burning sensation during urination or abdominal pain. Urinary analgesics, such as pyridium, can also help with symptomatic relief.
  • Hydration: Drinking plenty of water helps flush out bacteria from the urinary tract and can aid in recovery. It is often recommended to increase fluid intake during a UTI.
  • Preventive Measures: For recurrent UTIs, doctors may recommend preventive measures such as low-dose antibiotics, lifestyle changes, or the use of topical estrogen (in postmenopausal women) to reduce the risk of future infections.
  • Surgery or Procedures: In rare cases, UTIs that are associated with structural abnormalities or blockages in the urinary tract may require surgical intervention or procedures to correct the underlying issue.


The prognosis for UTIs is generally favorable with appropriate treatment. Most uncomplicated UTIs respond well to antibiotics, and symptoms often improve within a few days. However, it’s crucial to complete the full course of antibiotics to ensure the infection is completely eradicated and to prevent recurrence.

If left untreated or if there are complications, UTIs can lead to more serious conditions such as kidney infection or sepsis. Prompt medical attention is essential, especially for individuals with symptoms of a kidney infection (pyelonephritis), as this can have a higher risk of complications.

Prevention & Management


  • Hydration: Staying well-hydrated helps dilute urine and flush out bacteria from the urinary tract.
  • Urinate Regularly: Don’t hold in urine for extended periods of time; empty your bladder when you feel the need.
  • Wipe Front to Back: After using the toilet, always wipe from front to back to prevent the spread of bacteria from the anus to the urethra.
  • Avoid Irritants: Reduce or avoid irritants like scented feminine products, douches, and harsh soaps that can disrupt the balance of the urinary tract.
  • Cranberry Products: Some individuals find that cranberry supplements may help prevent UTIs, but the evidence is mixed, and it’s best to consult a healthcare provider before relying solely on cranberry products.


  • If you experience recurrent UTIs, consult with a healthcare provider for a comprehensive evaluation.
  • They may recommend preventive strategies, such as taking low-dose antibiotics or prescribing medications to be taken after sexual intercourse in some cases.
  • Lifestyle changes and addressing underlying risk factors are crucial to reduce the recurrence of UTIs.
  • If you have a UTI, follow your prescribed antibiotic treatment and drink plenty of water.
  • Avoid bladder irritating substances like caffeine and alcohol during a UTI.
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers may provide relief from discomfort.


Urinary Tract Infections are common but treatable conditions that can affect anyone. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with antibiotics can lead to a quick recovery and a positive outlook. To reduce the risk of UTIs, practicing good hygiene, staying well-hydrated, and following preventive measures are essential.

For individuals who experience recurrent UTIs or have concerns about their urinary health, consulting a healthcare provider for a tailored prevention and management plan is advisable. UTIs should not be ignored, as untreated or recurrent infections can lead to more severe complications.

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