Male Factor Infertility

Need help now?

Male factor infertility refers to the condition in which a man is unable to impregnate his female partner due to issues related to his reproductive system. It is a common cause of infertility and can result from various factors, including problems with sperm production, sperm quality, or the delivery of sperm.

At the University of Kansas Department of Urology, we specialize in addressing male factor infertility with a commitment to advanced care and tailored treatment plans. Our experienced urologists leverage state-of-the-art diagnostic tools and therapies to diagnose and treat male infertility effectively. We are dedicated to your overall health and offer compassionate care to improve your fertility and ultimately enhance your quality of life.

Types of Male Factor Infertility

  • Sperm Production Issues: These problems occur when the testes (the male reproductive organs responsible for sperm production) fail to produce an adequate number of healthy sperm. This condition is called oligospermia if there are too few sperm, and azoospermia if there are no sperm in the ejaculate.
  • Sperm Quality Issues: Even if a man produces an adequate quantity of sperm, they may have poor motility (ability to move), abnormal morphology (shape), or other defects that hinder their ability to fertilize an egg.
  • Sperm Delivery Issues: At times, difficulties may arise in the delivery of sperm. These challenges often manifest as blockages in the male reproductive tract that permit the passage of ejaculate without sperm, a condition known as obstructive azoospermia. In contrast, when a blockage or another issue leads to a complete absence of ejaculate, it is referred to as aspermia.



Male factor infertility may not present noticeable symptoms in many cases. However, some signs that could indicate male infertility include:

  • Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection
  • Pain, swelling, or lumps in the testicles
  • Problems with ejaculation, such as premature ejaculation or retrograde ejaculation (where sperm enters the bladder instead of being ejaculated)
  • Low or absent sex drive

It’s important to note that many men with male factor infertility have no obvious symptoms, and the condition is often diagnosed when couples have trouble conceiving.


There are various factors and conditions that can contribute to male factor infertility, including:

  • Varicocele: A varicocele is a swelling of the veins that drain the testicles. It can lead to reduced sperm production and quality.
  • Infections: Infections of the reproductive system, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), can damage sperm production or block the sperm’s passage.
  • Hormonal Imbalances: Disorders affecting hormones, such as testosterone, can disrupt sperm production.
  • Genetic Factors: Some genetic abnormalities can affect sperm production, leading to infertility.
  • Environmental Factors: Exposure to toxins, radiation, or certain medications can harm sperm production and quality.
  • Lifestyle Factors: Poor lifestyle choices, such as excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, drug use, and obesity, can contribute to male factor infertility.
  • Age: Advanced age can reduce sperm quality and quantity.
  • Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT): Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can potentially cause male factor infertility by suppressing natural testosterone production, which can lead to reduced sperm production and quality.
  • Unexplained Causes: In some cases, the cause of male infertility remains unexplained despite thorough evaluation.


  • Medical History and Physical Examination: The process typically begins with a detailed medical history and a physical examination by a healthcare provider. This can help identify any underlying health issues or lifestyle factors that may contribute to male infertility.
  • Semen Analysis: A crucial diagnostic test for male factor infertility is a semen analysis. This test assesses various parameters of the sperm, including sperm count, motility (movement), morphology (shape), and other characteristics. Abnormalities in these parameters can provide valuable insights into the cause of infertility.
  • Hormone Testing: Blood tests can measure hormone levels, such as testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), to evaluate the functioning of the testes and the endocrine system.
  • Genetic Testing: In cases where a genetic factor is suspected, genetic testing may be recommended to identify any genetic abnormalities that could affect fertility.
  • Imaging Studies: Imaging tests, such as scrotal ultrasound, can help detect anatomical issues, blockages, or abnormalities in the male reproductive tract.
  • Infectious Disease Testing: Screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or other infections that may affect fertility is essential.


  • Lifestyle Changes: Making healthy lifestyle choices, such as maintaining a balanced diet, exercising regularly, reducing alcohol and tobacco consumption, and managing stress, can have a positive impact on fertility.
  • Medications: Depending on the underlying cause, medications may be prescribed to address hormonal imbalances or infections that could be contributing to infertility.
  • Surgery: Surgical procedures may be necessary to correct structural issues, such as varicoceles or obstructed reproductive tracts. These procedures can sometimes restore fertility.
  • Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART): When other treatments are ineffective, or if severe male factor infertility is diagnosed, ART options like in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be recommended. ICSI involves directly injecting a single sperm into an egg to facilitate fertilization.
  • Donor Sperm: In cases of severe male infertility where no viable sperm can be obtained from the male partner, couples may consider using donor sperm for fertilization.


The outlook for male factor infertility depends on the specific cause and the effectiveness of treatment. Many cases of male infertility can be successfully treated, allowing couples to achieve pregnancy. However, in some cases where severe sperm production or quality issues exist, achieving pregnancy may be more challenging, and alternative methods such as sperm donation or adoption may be considered.

Prevention and Management

  • Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting a healthy lifestyle can help prevent male factor infertility or manage existing issues. This includes maintaining a balanced diet, regular exercise, avoiding excessive alcohol and tobacco use, and managing stress.
  • Safe Sex Practices: Practicing safe sex by using condoms can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which can lead to infertility if left untreated.
  • Avoiding Exposure to Toxins: Minimize exposure to environmental toxins and hazards, such as industrial chemicals, pesticides, and radiation, which can harm sperm production and quality.
  • Regular Check-ups: Men should undergo regular medical check-ups to identify and address any underlying health conditions that could affect fertility, such as diabetes or hormonal imbalances.
  • Protection of the Genital Area: Wearing protective gear during activities that pose a risk of injury to the genital area can help prevent physical trauma that may impact fertility.
  • Timely Treatment: Seek prompt medical attention for any infections or medical conditions that could affect fertility. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.


Male factor infertility is a common and treatable condition that can affect a couple’s ability to conceive. It is essential for couples facing fertility challenges to seek medical guidance and evaluation from a qualified healthcare provider or fertility specialist. Through a combination of diagnostic tests, lifestyle modifications, medical treatments, and assisted reproductive techniques, many cases of male infertility can be addressed successfully.

For more information on Male Factor Infertility